Diphenhydramine, a sedative histamine H1-receptor (H1R) antagonist, was evaluated as a probe to measure drug/H+-antiporter function at the blood-brain barrier.
In situ brain perfusion experiments in mice and rats showed that diphenhydramine transport at the blood-brain barrier was saturable, following Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a Km = 2.99 mM and Vmax = 179.5 nmol s-1 g-1. In the pharmacological plasma concentration range the carrier-mediated component accounted for 77% of diphenhydramine influx while passive diffusion accounted for only 23%.
[14C]Diphenhydramine blood-brain barrier transport was proton and clonidine sensitive but was influenced by neither tetraethylammonium, a MATE1 (SLC47A1), and OCT/OCTN (SLC22A1-5) modulator, nor P-gp/Bcrp (ABCB1a/1b/ABCG2) deficiency. Brain and plasma kinetics of [11C]diphenhydramine were measured by positron emission tomography imaging in rats. [11C]Diphenhydramine kinetics in different brain regions were not influenced by displacement with 1 mg kg-1 unlabeled diphenhydramine, indicating the specificity of the brain positron emission tomography signal for blood-brain barrier transport activity over binding to any central nervous system target in vivo. [11C]Diphenhydramine radiometabolites were not detected in the brain 15 min after injection, allowing for the reliable calculation of [11C]diphenhydramine brain uptake clearance (Clup = 0.99 ± 0.18 mL min-1 cm-3).
Diphenhydramine is a selective and specific H+-antiporter substrate. [11C]Diphenhydramine positron emission tomography imaging offers a reliable and noninvasive method to evaluate H+-antiporter function at the blood-brain barrier.
Sylvain Auvity a conduit sa Thèse d'Université dans l'équipe 3.